Live Smallpox Virus in Cadaverous Materials-Focusing on Wolff and Croon’s Experiment
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Live Smallpox Virus in Cadaverous Materials-Focusing on Wolff and Croon’s Experiment에 대한 보고서 자료입니다.



I. Introduction
II. Current findings of cadaverous materials
1. Corpses in non-permafrost areas
2. Corpses in permafrost
3. Shortcomings of these findings
III. Shortcomings of Wolff and Croon’s 1968 paper
IV. Stability of orthopox virus
V. Conclusion



This paper examines Wolff and Croon’s 1968 paper along with Essbaueret al.’s 2006 paper and suggests that the reason why no live smallpox virus has been found in cadaverous materials in spite of continuous search may be due to the fact that it is impossible for variola virus to remain alive in such conditions.

I. Introduction
WHO announced worldwide eradication of smallpox over 30 years ago (McCollum et al., 2014, 177). However, as Fenner and his colleagues stated, “as the expert groups which defined eradication recognized, the absence of cases of smallpox is not synonymous with the extinction of variola virus (1988, 1321),” and this means that further cases of smallpox may occur if given the right conditions. Hypothetical ways in which the virus can be preserved and transmitted to humans (excluding laboratory accidents) are as follows: wildlife reservoir, hidden stocks of virus, cadaverous materials, and transformation of a different virus into variola virus. However, extensive research has found that even though Orangutans and other species of monkeys and apes are affected by small-pox like infection, and variola virus can be artificially maintained in the Macaca irus monkeys up to six generations (Breman & Anita, 1978, 6; Fenner et al, 1988, 1323), the epidemiological evidence weighs against animal reservoirs of the virus since no smallpox cases have been detected for several decades in areas with non-human primate troops that contacted humans rather frequently in heavily endemic locations such as the Philippines and Central America (Breman & Anita, 1978, 7). In the case of the clandestine virus stocks, there is no way for anyone to know for sure whether it exists or not, and in the case of viral transformation or genetic engineering, it has been proven to be nearly impossible (Breman & Anita, 1978, 4; Smith & McFadden, 2002, 525). On the other hand, anecdotal reports (Razzell, 1976) and past scientific studies (Wolff & Croon, 1968) show that the virus may have survived in cadaverous materials, such as scabs or unearthed human remains.
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  • 페이지수20페이지
  • 등록일2018.03.10
  • 저작시기2014.12
  • 파일형식기타(docx)
  • 자료번호#1047516
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